Authors : Franck Amiet, Damien Bazin
To ensure people’s safety and a good repeatability of industrial process, near real-time risk management and the continuous monitoring are crucial. In the semiconductor fabrication process, particle control is an essential part. Clean room technology, which relies on the use of HEPA and ULPA filtration, has in the past exclusively focused on the control of micro- and nano-particles. Nevertheless, as a consequence of device reduction, Airborne Molecular Contaminations (AMCs) has also become a key detractor of yield. Especially in photolithography area where a variety of molecules can impact the process (ammonia, Silicon Volatile organic compounds, acids).1 The nature and concentration of AMCs can be different depending on the chemical process and can also vary rapidly. These AMCs can impact the process and reduce the lifetime of equipment. Among the AMCs, silicon compounds are very problematic because they combine with oxygen to create amorphous silicon dioxide on optical surfaces, leading to non-reversible lens damages. These optical tools are very expensive and need to be protected
The concentrations of VOCs are usually assessed using sorbent tubes or canisters for the sample collection. The samples are then taken to a laboratory for GC–MS analyses. Some of these methods are well established and have been published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as compendium methods, which are known as TO-14A or TO-15 methods. These methods for sampling and analysis are inherently for time-averaged concentrations. Although rapid sampling is possible when using canisters, it is too expensive to analyze a large number of samples if real-time concentration trends need to be profiled.
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Authors : Franck Amiet, Jean-Philippe Amiet, Mickaël Gezat
Chromatotec have established themselves in the Forefront of Sulphur Analysis in Hazardous Areas. Their latest Enhancement of their MEDOR range has Augmented their Rapid Rise in this Expanding Market.
Most natural gas production and exploitation sites are considered to be hazardous area. This is certainly the case when it comes to Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) sites. It is vital to avoid creating any areas, within the sites, in which the atmosphere contains flammable gas. The need to comply to stringent safety and environmental regulations and the associated cost and constraints associated with compliance, need to be factored in, when calculating a site’s profitability.
Natural gas is a natural resource present on the earth which can vary in composition depending on the location of its extraction. In order to maximise the use and value of natural gas, it is necessary to control its composition. Even if it is composed mainly of methane, natural gas contains some traces of Sulphur compounds which can affect its quality as well as having dramatic effects during its transportation (for example : corrosion of the pipes). Therefore, companies that work with natural gas need to control the level of Sulphur compound impurities, as well as adding specific Mercaptans to make it odourant and easily detectable in cases of leakage.cliquer sur le lien, ci-dessous, pour télécharger le fichier
Natural gas is colourless and odourless in its most pure form. When
extracted, it can contain sulfur compounds such as H2S and Mercaptans
that when in the presence of moisture can produce sulfuric acid that can
degrade the pipeline. So for reasons of public safety as well as
pipeline integrity, there is a need to measure and control precisely the
level of odorant species in natural gas :
- adjust the amount of sulfur molecules in the gas
- control of odorant passivation
- aids in detection of leaks
For more than 30 years, Chromatotec® has manufactured the
energyMEDOR, based on the gas chromatography principles, to measure H2S,
all mercaptans, sulfides, Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) and total sulfur in
natural gas. Due to the advantages of the “MEDOR” technology, a new
guideline was defined, ASTM D7493-08 (as the Standard Test Method for
Online Measurement of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels
by Gas Chromatograph and Electrochemical Detection). The energyMEDOR by
Chromatotec® is fully compliant with this guideline.
It has been established that organic aerosols (OA) makes up a major
fraction of fine particulate matter in all region of the atmosphere.
This fraction accounts approximately for half of the total PM2.5 dry
mass. Primary OA is directly emitted in the trophosphere from anthropological and natural sources whereas secondary OA (SOA) is formed in-situ in the atmosphere from the oxidation of biogenic or anthropogenic gas-phase precursors and subsequent partitioning of the less volatile products into the particle phase.
Authors : Jean Philippe AMIET, Louis VIVOLA
Odour measurement is a demanding topic to manage due to the complexity of existing solution and the methodology used.